- 1 What is Surrealist Art? Definition
- 1.1 Characteristics of Surrealist Art
- 1.2 The Abstract Surrealism
- 1.3 The Figurative Surrealism
- 1.4 Types of Surrealism
- 1.5 Surrealism with other Artistic Models
- 1.6 Ways of Making Surrealist Art
- 1.7 Techniques used in the Surrealist Art
- 1.8 Surrealist Women
- 1.9 What were the contributions of Surrealist Women?
- 1.10 Women Painters Surrealists
What is Surrealist Art? Definition
We can say that the definition of Surrealist art is a model that seeks to inspire changes surrealist with conceptual without them to be figurative. This movement started in France so Dadaism was one of their bases in the 1920’s, it develops as a way to forget reality and find a way that the artist encloses in himself, in a psychic impulse of the imaginary and dreams. It emerged as part of the advance of avant-garde wanting to represent ideals other than the academics, breaking the laws of traditional painting and with a purpose to draw the attention of the viewer directly, with no realistic images and in many cases even figurative.
This style of art tries to find inspiration in the artist’s mind, i.e. tries to forget all logical or rational thinking, since in this style of art, the reality does not help to represent a new work with a different expectation. It is for this reason that the painter does not represent subjects that talk about past, objects, experiences changes, among other things, for its main objective is to represent the reality that do not see others, i.e., a reality that is in the unconscious or dream. This is why, surreal art is one of the most difficult to understand and interpret art styles.
Poetry was the begining of surrealism and later it spread to painting and sculpture, extending to the political world, starting from 1925, identifying with the Communist ideology.
Surrealist art started with the interpretation of dreams of Freud in 1901. The ideas of Freud at the beginning were not well considered but gradually this ideas were permeating the philosophical and artistic imagery of the moment and the artists theories of the moment, they began to describe, draw, paint or to shape that world outside, of the field of consciousness.
André Breton was who wrote “Surrealist manifest” in 1924, as he already in the post-war period developed a new art, this new art represented the fantasies and dreams of artists and not the cruel reality which at that time they had. Although this type of movement was political, the principles were associated with the French Communist Party. For this reason, contradictory ideas were created and the art style began to deteriorate.
Characteristics of Surrealist Art
As said before, this kind of art was characterized by making magic representations, of the unconscious, fantasies and dreams, beside the irrationality that had the works. Among the most known features we can highlight:
- It seeks access to the essence of reality into the deep fields of thought and leaving it free of all rational subject.
- Mixed objects, feelings and concepts that reason maintains separate, emerging free and unexpected associations of words, unusual metaphors, even delusional and dreamlike images.
- It is a way of life. Breton exalted the “wait and availability’ vital necessary to enter into a trance with objects, symbols and people, with large passengers, and incidental encounters with a “crazy” love, a magical foundation, not sentimental, resorting to cruelty and humor.
- Initial close relations between Surrealism and Marxism made that you unfold throughout a liberating vision of man, a new man. In some ways surrealism inaugurates a new way to read.
- For the purpose of freeing the human being’s personal and social repression, the surrealists took a series of techniques that sought freedom of creation and forgetting reason.
- Both forms and objects lacked its traditional meaning, i.e. the artist wants that the viewer became disoriented.
- Erroneous images are created in such a way that a thing or object can be interpreted in different ways.
- The artist gave importance to destruction, the mystery, the paradox and absurdity, among other things.
- Many of the works will be a critique of modern life.
- The imagination is used as logic.
- The manufacture of objects, film and photography.
- The Assembly of objects and collages.
- Drawings created with the friction of rocky surfaces, these drawings are called Frottage.
- They used a method called “Exquisite corpse”, this technique was mainly based on various artists drawing different parts of a text, or shape.
- Any way of expression that had the mind did not have any control over others.
- The inspiration was based on the forbidden and hidden thoughts, sex will be used for unchaste fashion.
These are among others the features used by the artist, since every artist from surrealist art will look for the way to displacing the observer.
The Abstract Surrealism
It is characterized by applying pure automatism, by which the artists invent own figurative universes. Thus, in the automation ideas and associations of images, have a rise and origin of shape in a fast way, spontaneous, fluid, not taking into account all the coherence and sense. The most relevant representatives are: Masson, Miro and Klee since they create their works personal figurative universes based on the purest automation. Therefore, in abstract surrealism more emphasis on aspects chromatic, formal, structural work is made without imitating models or natural forms.
So, it is rather subjective art which represents free forms that have emerged from the imagination of the creator. Thus with the abstraction can be transmitted different types of sensations, which can be aggressive, calm, dynamism, of rest, of disorder, of harmony. As a result, the more regular the abstract form is more feeling of stability, calm and rest transmitted. On the other hand, if the work is more irregular tends to convey a sense of disorder, aggressiveness, movement and agitation.
Another important feature of the abstract surrealism is that it tends to generate a stand-alone visual language, equipped with their own meanings. This language has built on the experiences fauvist and expressionist, extolling the strength of color and converging in the lyrical abstraction or informalism, also on the basis of the Cubist structure, which configures different geometrical and constructive abstractions.
The Figurative Surrealism
The figurative surrealism movement was born in Europe, in France, after the first world war, being one of its leading representatives, Salvador Dalí. So, there is no more than seeing his works for extasis in the way as Dali encant the viewer to enter them in his magnificent paintings surreal world. In which the dimensions of his inner world as how he perceived it to the real world. So, with that recreated fantastic world the viewer is brought back from the real one, into his inner world. Thus to study his psyche, psychologists and psychoanalysts claim that the only way that Dalí deal with the separation from his mother since birth, was recreating this inner world that only he could elucidate through his paintings. Thus, in his paintings highlights figurative surrealism, the nearly photographic way of figures.
Types of Surrealism
Surrealism was born as a movement from which emerges a very different aesthetics, a science of the sensible that uses the image to perceive globalization. So, this current of thinking extends to literature, the plastic arts, audiovisual media, among others. A significant feature of this current of thought is the projective identification with something external to the subject, that allows to become aware of what from the outside is reflected in return. It is divided into surrealism figurative and abstract.
Surrealism in Literature
This literary and artistic movement began in French country from Dadaist art, in the early 1920’s, following guidelines of André Breton one of the major poets of the time. Therefore, the term surrealism and surrealist in the literature according to Guillaume Apollinaire in May 1917, appears in a hand program that wrote for the musical Parade and at the same, says that its authors achieved an integration between painting and dance between the visual arts and the mimetic, which is the beginning of a broader art that was to come.
From surrealist literature, evoques to a perfection of limpid beauty, looking for formal perfection and the lucid success of content, in a stylish contemporary literary creation. A set of intuitions and ideas of deep coherence manifests itself in this current. So, there is a constant thematic structure which is adopted in every poetic stage in the work of the representative of this current writers. You can vary the external structure, forms of expression chosen, poetic modes but the foundation, the literary essence remains in an unalterable way. The basic structure is reiterated with diverse and significant variations, always having a constant background.
Making a similarity to what is romantic music in different variations around a single theme, each variant shows a new appreciation, a new perspective. Therefore, the set delivers a final mosaic which always refers to a supreme spot when just recovered is lost. Therefore, Surrealism in literature implies a theory about love, life and the imagination, of the relationships between the human being and the world. The most representative literature is Octavio Paz, his imagination leads both the irrational game of flirtatious of the current french poetry, but more to the game of destiny as the game ball of the Aztec gods. Another aspect that characterizes it and is also represented in peace, is the approach to the language, since as Blanchot says, it is considered that surrealism was the first that awarded life to words.
The movement was born as a strong operation performed on the language, i.e. the imaginative liberation of language, where at the end the random plays with the word. This consideration of language leads to an intrinsic reference to the sacred to otherness, to that other that the consciousness of the human is directed by essence. I.e. surrealism wants to retain the essence of religious awareness rejecting what regarded as alienation.
Thus from this literary movement, in human love is all the power of regeneration of the world, a sort of magnetic deification of the female. Therefore, love is the recovery of the lost powers, the unity of opposites, the power of destiny as sleep and poetic inspiration. Also, from this current point of view women communicate human beings with the forces of nature and the unconscious hidden in a demonstration of direct relationship with the supreme point or unity of opposites (Martínez Torrón, 1983).
Surrealism in the Plastic Arts
This movement views the form as art and the main feature, it is considered to be the central motif, the key concept of art and architecture. So forms always transmit ethical values, refer to the cultural aspects, exchanged social criteria and refer to meanings. Consequently, from surrealism to show that behind each of the formal basics, there is a vision of the world and a conception of time and a definite idea of the subject. For this reason, every formal concept relates not only works but also philosophical and scientific theories. The complexity of the architecture and art of the 20th century has been integrated to surrealism around essential concepts that allow to relate each other works of architecture, Visual Arts, literature, film, photography and fashion.
In this sense, the development of concepts are interpreted as creative mechanisms and formal worlds. Therefore, the concepts are emerging from surrealism of: bodies, machines, with abstraction and rationalism, realism, subdivided in humanist realism and pop culture, structures, distinguishing radical critique, the critique of typological and the minimalism, and dispersions, with fragments, chaos and energy, which then generate the trends in the arts of the 20th century.
In another vein, Surrealism in the arts is characterized by an aesthetic system and compositional classic, which despite its variables and evolution is unitary and timeless criteria based on the order, proportion, symmetry, harmony, the hierarchy and representation, which subsequently allowed entering a new era in which disappeared compositional universal laws which gave rise to this current.
Surrealism in the arts was a movement that sought to discover the true, automatic writings, without corrections, rational, using images to express emotions, but who never followed a logical reasoning is also considered. However, in the plastic arts what most characterizes the movement is the creation of objects and shapes without a traditional meaning, the creation of these images may lead to the mistake so that the same thing could be interpreted in different ways. Giving much importance to the paradox, absurdity, forfeiture, destruction and the mysterious.
In this sense from surrealism art is generally characterized as: symbolic abstract or figurative forms that attempt to capture images of the deeper reality of the human being, the subconscious and the world of dreams. The animation of the inanimate, the isolation of anatomical fragments, inconsistent elements, metamorphosis, the creation of fantastic machines, relations between naked and machinery, the evocation of chaos, empty perspectives, universes figurative themselves. With specific techniques of surrealist art, such as the operator.
Thus surrealism in visual arts is based on images and ideas that come from the subconscious. Therefore, rational and logical aspects are invalidated by the spontaneous outflow of the creative impulses of the surreal mind of the creator. The manufacture of surrealist art is therefore largely a process of matching.
Surrealism in the Audiovisual Media Work
A feature out of Surrealism in the audiovisual media is that images and reminiscences are worked from a logic of dream and completely free of any repression of the senses. Therefore, surrealist films capture the attention instantly, and from them, the imagination soars to unexpected places.
Equally, from surrealism, photography, some techniques such as collage were taken, which was carried out beyond creating other new images. For example called found objects known as ready-made objects, were widely represented in the surrealist photography. These objects were discovered in Dadaism and Surrealism, from waste products found by chance, such as tags, seals, cans, everyday objects, pieces of metal and worn fabrics used in the collage. Therefore, in artistic achievement is given to these objects of wastem, a new aesthetic function apart from the mechanism of consumption.
Other very extended techniques from the surrealism in the world of the image, are the so-called rayographs or rayography of Man Ray. This surrealist technique, is obtaining images without camera. It consists in exposing photographic paper to light for a few seconds. Objects are placed on top of that role, then, what will be reflected in the ‘photography’ is the form. Accordingly, the work way of photographers rested in the unconscious representation of reality and manipulation of images.
Surrealism in Painting
In surrealism and painting in 1928, whose greatest exponent is Breton, is taken into consideration the surreal psychology of the unconscious defined as the region of intellect where human beings do not objective reality but integrate a whole with it. Art, in this area, therefore, is not representation but vital direct communication from the individual to the whole.
From there, a connection exists that is expressed as a priority in meaningful coincidences (random objective), where converge the desire of the individual and becoming oblivious to it’s unpredictable as well as in the dream, where more elements reveal themselves united by secret relationship. This is how surrealism proposes to move the images to the world of art through a free mental association, without the interference of consciousness. Why choose as a method operator, picked up as a witness of the spiritist mediumistic practices, but radically changing their interpretation, therefore, speaks through the medium are not spirits, but the unconscious.
Ernst (1891-1979), became one of the leading exponents of Surrealism since he created and used the technique of the frotagge, which consists of rubbing a mine of lead or pen on a paper that relies on an object leaving their mark in this role, with all the irregularities. Thus, arising images appear full of mysterious evocations of signs of disaster and desolation. One of these works with this technique is entitled: cities, Europe after the rain.
Surrealism with other Artistic Models
Surrealism is not only an artistic choice, but also a movement that promotes the comprehensive revolution, the total liberation of the human being. So the goal was to transform lives. This total release seeking the surrealists focuses mainly on two areas: personality and life. Seeking to liberate human beings from their own repression.
In this aspect, it is linked to other fields such as the theory of the psychoanalysis of Freud. Likewise, Surrealism seeks the release of repression that bourgeois society and its model of state on the human being. In this trend, Surrealism is related to Marxism. Therefore, the surrealists sought to draw the attention of the unconscious of the human being. Thus they sought to cause actions, not to be understood.
Therefore, surrealism should be considered as a movement that rehumanize the dehumanized the avant-garde art, which closes a period and return to existential, religious and social issues. Thus in its relationship with other artistic models, the most significant of the avant-garde are following features:
1.The reality is not criticized, but it is accessed in its essence, getting into deep fields of thought and leaving it free of all rational attachment and apart from any aesthetic or moral concern.
- A new universe that is subconscious, capable of producing works disturbing and strange, dominated by the irrationality, the no-logica and by the techniques of free association is conceived.
- In line with the rejection of an informative or descriptive vision of reality, arises the concept of wonderful. In the manifest of Surrealism it is captured clearly the wonderful as always beautiful. Thus everything that is considered wonderful, whatever, is beautiful.
- As featured resources always highlight the use of disturbing images, the presence of prophecies, dreams, black humor and cruelty (as opposed to sentimentality pathways), Satanism and the allusion to surrealist objects.
Ways of Making Surrealist Art
There were two distinguished ways of making surrealist art: one which defended the automatism, were the abstract surrealists such as Joan Miró and André Masson, who created own figurative universes. In the automation ideas and associations of images, arise so quick, spontaneous, fluid, ignoring all of the coherence and the sense. And another who believed that the naturalist figuration could be a resource equally valid. Where the figurative surrealists like Salvador Dali, René Magritte, Paul Delvaux, Estéfano Viu and Yves Tanguy, were interested in dreams and magical realism.
Techniques used in the Surrealist Art
everal artistic techniques were used in surrealism that we will know then among the most popular that we find today the collage and the calligram continuous using no we are in schools but also in institutes.
Was one of the main innovations of surrealist art, which consists of devised a set of images or texts, an artist begins a work and passes it to another artist, who continues her without looking at what he did the previous creator being the final work a work that has been done in a collective manner.
It is a poem, phrase or Word in which typography, calligraphy or the manuscript text is arranged or configured in such a way that you think a kind of image and that image created by the words expressed visually what the or the words they say.
It is an artistic technique that consists in assembling elements in a unified whole.
It is a most important surrealist technique from the birth of surrealism to today.
Smoking or Fumage
Called in French, is a technique in which impressions are made by smoke on the paper or canvas.
It is a method for creating collages using an image cut in small squares and sequenced at random, Gherasim Luca, was the artist who most used this technique.
This pictorial technique was invented by Óscar Domínguez, it consists of applying black gouache on paper, which is placed on top of another sheet on which a light, pressure then they take off until dry.
It is a surrealist technique created by Jimmy Earns in where a liquid paint is sucked to inspire or reveal an image.
Surrealism of the 1920s regarded women a piece of art, as if they were muse of inspiration. Therefore, at that time, the artists became very unnoticed in the eyes of the public and the critics. Many of them however were offending and controversial because they understood the surrealism as a tool to assert their personal freedom.
In the works of surrealist women, you can see that they explored the unconscious through dreams, induced trances, thoughts and feelings. However, the story left them an undeserved background. So it is today seeks to recover the role that these women could always have. Thus emerge later fully free, as creators of all original and unique worlds, with a feminine accent.
In 1924, André Breton carried out the first manifest of surrealism, which founded the surrealist movement that, while it supported in theory equal and the woman’s artistic choice, in practice considered them as an art object, a muse, or sexual object. However despite the masculinity of this movement, and abuse created by men in treating the woman, there was a group of women artists who were actors and sharers, in greater or lesser degree from the 1920s , of surrealism.
What were the contributions of Surrealist Women?
The decades of the twenties and thirties of the twentieth century were both fertile and controversial times in the fields of ideas, art and industrial progress. Especially in Paris, considered the treasure of all the avant-garde of the time, where the most revolutionary phenomenon in the history of contemporary art realized as it was the female surrealist movement: visual artists, writers, philosophers and inventors , filmmakers, patrons and seamstresses often work together with absolute spontaneity, a continuous flow of ideas and collaborations as natural then as it is today, both the separation and the secret between the different disciplines.
Thus, a transcendent fact of female surrealist movement, is that at that time, fashion was only Couture, and was owned almost exclusively of women. Vionnet, Lanvin, Alix, Louise Boulanger and the Callot sisters were notable and famous dressmakers, and every fashion house had its clientele. Also, the female surrealist movement reflected that power was of them, having to Coco Chanel, as the maximum representative, who introduced the concepts of youth and rationalism, in sewing and he said prophetically to fashion that is not for the masses it is not fashionable, because she died at birth. Therefore, Channel always defended his work as a craft, not an art, therefore it is considered that from surrealism is still owing to the women the current silhouette.
Women Painters Surrealists
surrealism corresponds to a legion led by André Breton and artists such as Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Man Ray, Buñuel, Miró and Magritte, to name a few. This movement, however also had a very important female representatives, who deserve attention and study beyond famous surrealist women such as Leonora Carrington and Remedios Varo. Below an interesting compiled list of seven artists you should know from art and dreams.
Surrealist women contributed to this movement in aspects such as the narrative style with feminist consciousness, since from the artistic field managed to reflect in their work the relationship between science and art, seeking to reveal the internal order of the fantasy world taken from his personal experiences, looking for the rational in the world of fantasy, nature, Alchemy, the supernatural, attached to the woman as a source of sensitivity and regenerative powers. Thus in the works of Remedios Varo, one of their representatives, shown is the reconciliation of these two worlds both the scientist and the mythical, thus giving origin to the transcendence and reincarnation.
Surrealist Women Sculptors
The first association of artists sculptors with the world of surrealism were rounded lump sculptures. Although they had in the years 1915 fascination with organic forms and order of the renewal biomorphic which is interpreted in oval shapes. Likewise, the arrangement of the elements of the sculpture in a horizontal manner, is highlighted as shown in the work of Giacometti in its table games. Also Elisa Breton who produced surrealist boxes and sculptures with different objects.
It is also evident from sculpture, the printing giving objects to the viewer approaches, which do not seem more than modified occupants that swim in competing currents, such is the case of the work of Arp that materialize contoured entities. The fantastic way to have and bring to the palpable forms of objects, such as internal projections of reality is evident in the work of these sculptors. Thus, one of the most representative of Surrealism sculptors is currently the American Nancy Fouts, who works and exposes surrealist sculptures of animals and everyday, ordinary objects or symbols, transforming them and sorting them, with a character Unlike the original. Stating that his work lacks depth but that enjoys and makes people smile.
Surrealist Women Photographers
Surrealist strongly influenced photography in the sense of that delves into the depths of the human subconscious and the world of dreams to have an understanding of the human as a whole. So the biggest contribution was in the creation of innovative techniques such as photomontage, the rayographs, the shadowgraphy and the photocollage, which is supported in the light and sensitive media, yet leaving aside the camera.
Another feature that comes from the surrealism in photography is that imagination is shown very clearly, without putting obstacles to the mind or reason. Shows the belief of a higher reality, in the omnipresence of the dream and the real functionality of thought, by setting aside all aesthetic and moral concern.
So, it is a belief of the surrealist photographers for this type of photography is not required an excessive digital work in them. Because they claim that it is on the one hand retouching, add or remove any item by another very different is to build the entire composition digitally, including using the photographs of other people or image banks. At the same time, it is interesting to highlight the work of Claude Cahun, poetic and with autobiographical traits, in search of personal myth and the constant exploration of the limits of the genre in costumes of various kinds.
Surrealist Women Filmmakers
Surrealism influenced films with the creation of specific techniques, such is the case of the film as the “flou” effect and overprinting techniques, which are perfectly reflected in the work of Germaine Dulac, in one of its most emblematic titles as it was: the souriante Madame Beudet (1923). In the surrealist film the filmmakers lived in a constant experimentation, often as a way of escape from their own concerns and conflicts, no matter much content but rather psychological portraits that reflected.
On the other hand, one of the major influences of Surrealism in the cinema, it was on documentary photography, which allowed later develop the cinematic technique of the documentary, which would have given in various ways.
One of them, by the publication of photographs, which allowed new photographers to present formal models from which to forge his aesthetic. In a second term, he helped build a panoramic view of new topics, absent until the time of the photograph, which was rather in the urban limits both at physical level as social and moral (in the philosophy of the surrealists the published photograph highlighting the space image in motion).
But the influence of Surrealism on the documentary photographers and more occurred in the conceptual, to give them intellectual and approaches life, through concepts of ontological, epistemological and anthropological nature, political and existential for build your vision of the established reality and how understood it later in their own practice.
The most surrealist influence on fashion has its origin in Paris, at the beginning of the 20th century, this city is considered the nerve center of ideas, movements, and innovations that then spread throughout Europe. Especially in the field of art design, the fashion and Couture, Paris is seen as the city of love that became the home of a group of writers, artists, inventors and, among them, fashion and dressmakers. Thus the years 30 and 40, which were marked by the wars, made to divert attention to the importance of the figure of the woman, which marked the world of fashion. Greater rotation occurred around Haute Couture which was owned almost exclusively by women.
Emblematic cases of Vionnet, Lanvin or the Callot sisters gained much reputation and had their own houses, each one with its exclusive clientele. So all the power of fashion and Haute Couture rely on them, accompanying then by Coco Chanel. This great figure of Haute Couture and fashion, introduced the concepts of youth and rationalism, as well as also defended her stance of Haute Couture as a job and not an art, being its strongest conception to fashion that, of what is not for the masses is not fashion, because according to her, dies at birth.
Existed also opposed movements, even though it had the Cubist artists, Rationalist architects and the concept of the basics in sewing of Chanel. These alternative movements, come from the surrealist influence. Thus, the most prominent in this current dressmaker was Elsa Schiaparelli who caused controversy and competition between the most prestigious designers of the moment, with its avant-garde designs, casual and colorful, becoming the only rival of Chanel, who is referring to it as the Italian artist who makes clothes and had to share clients with her, something that disgusted envelope fashion. Thus, these two designers took war and competition to its field, which was followed very strongly by the press.
Surrealist Women Writers
The surrealist writers were branded as they were mad because they possessed an unbridled creativity, it was thought that they needed psychiatric treatment because they had a difficult personality to subdue their dissent social, political, and moral. Also, they were catalogued as witches because without more, they pawned in transgressing norms that felt that it gassed them. It was said that they were carrying the Devil’s meat because they do not join into a castrating sexuality. In each of these statements can be seen the spirit of surrealist writers such as: Virginia Woolf, Leonora Carrington, Alejandra Pizarnik, Clarice Lispector, who were branded of mentally ill and were simply misunderstood by a society that did not take the time and the knowledge required to address their lengthy works.
The writer Marta Sanz current representative of Surrealism when speaking of her collarbone (Anagram) novel makes a story that is part of the surrealist movement, as a psychosomatic and current widely, says that it’s a broken text because she wanted to leave reflected the image of the female body as vandalized territory and grass of the fragility that has to do with gender, since with the passage of time, she extends her perception of vulnerability to people who want to emphasizing the precariousness of the gender in particular and the country in general.
Therefore, her metaphor for all this tear, she it is referred to as the aftermath that leaves the body navigating against the current and believes that it is almost impossible to separate the psyche, of chemistry, Physiology, the spirit of the economy, because according to her in this case women takes on the back a weight that is sometimes not known what name put to it.
Salvador Dalí: was the artist more prominent, with dreamlike images of varied meanings, with works such as “The persistence of memory” in 1931, also known as “Soft watches” by the incorporation of deformed watches to the landscape of a sunset on the beach, give the impression of subjectivity of time and space.
Joan Miró: Spanish painter, painted symbols and scribbles, a personal universe, product of his incredible imagination, with highlights such as “Carnival of Harlequin” created in 1925 and “Dutch Interior” of the 1928 among others. Surrealist artists Salvador Dalí: was the artist more prominent, with dreamlike images of varied meanings, with works such as “The persistence of memory” in 1931, also known as “Soft watches” by the incorporation of deformed watches to the landscape of a sunset on the beach, give the impression of subjectivity of time and space.
André Breton: was a poet considered the father of this movement, with his work, “Surrealist manifesto” that created in 1924, promoting a free thinking, without the bonds of reasoning, moral or aesthetic, governed by the operator, as if it were of represent the dreams.
Francis Picabia: its beginnings were in the post impressionism, later in Fauvism, Cubism and Excel in Dadaism, joined surrealism.
Max Ernst: este artista destacó en la pintura, donde la fantasía es representada de modo tan convincente que aparece como real.
René Magritte: artista del surrealismo dotó a este movimiento de una carga conceptual basada en el juego de imágenes ambiguas y su significado denotado a través de palabras poniendo en cuestión la relación entre un objeto pintado y el real.
Paul Delvaux: this artist carries his works of a thick eroticism based on its character of estrangement in the spaces by Giorgio de Chirico.
Pablo Picasso: he joined the surrealist movement in 1925, his works of its Dinard on 1928-1930, are considered surrealist, in which Picasso combines the monstrous in the composition of figures between machines half giant appearance and sometimes monsters terrifying.
Oscar Domínguez: this artist invented decalcomania, is a technique where black gouache on paper which is placed on top of another sheet over which exerts slight pressure is applied and before it dries is taken off.